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【 #BD工作小貼士 】揭開有效時間管理的秘密 運用艾森豪矩陣 Uncovering the Secrets to Efficient Time Management: Leveraging the Eisenhower Matrix

艾森豪:「我有兩種事情要處理:緊急的事和重要的事。緊急的不重要,重要的不緊急。」一天下來,工作清單越積越多,又忙著處理緊急事務,想要維持工作效率變得越來越艱難。如何有效安排工作項目的優先順序,決定了你的工作會落後抑或達標。此時就該活用「艾森豪矩陣」管理法,這種決策系統方法是以美國第 34 任總統暨五星上將艾森豪 (Dwight D. Eisenhower) 命名。他以傑出的工作效率聞名。它是按照輕重緩急來排列任務的方式,讓人可以輕鬆管理任務以及時間規劃。

如何區分緊急與重要的任務

緊急性和重要性這兩個詞看起來相似,但兩者之間具有關鍵的差異。緊急即需要立即關注。若不在時間範圍內完成,將會有明顯的後果。你無法避免這類任務,延遲處理的時間愈久,就可能感到更大的壓力。重要即可能不需要立即關注,但這些任務有助你達成長期目標。只因為這些任務較不緊急,不表示他們無關緊要。你需要針對這些任務詳加規劃,才能有效使用資源。艾森豪矩陣有助你將任務區分成四個類別:優先執行的任務、稍後執行的任務、待委派的任務,及待刪除的任務。

第一象限:Do執行

既緊急且重要的任務。若待辦清單的任務中,有必須立刻完成、後果明確且會影響長期目標者,應放入此象限。例如,接手生病同事的專案、因應預料之外的緊急情況

第二象限:Decide安排時程

不緊急但仍重要的的任務。這類屬於重要的長期目標或工作項目,但沒有確切的期限,因此可排定之後再完成。你解決第一象限的任務後,就會立刻解決這類任務。例如,考取專業資格、規劃預算刪減等長期的業務目標。

第三象限:Delegate委派

緊急但不重要的任務。這些任務必須立刻完成,但不會影響長期目標。這類可能並未重要到需要親自費神處理,可將這些工作分派給其他團隊成員。例如,例行公事、冗長卻目的不明的會議或電話。

第四象限:Delete刪除

既不緊急也不重要的任務。這類工作會分散注意力,應盡可能避免。在許多情況下,可直接忽略或取消此類工作。例如,社交活動、非必要又漫長的下午茶休息時間。

要把「艾森豪矩陣」發揮到極致有以下小貼士:

  1. 每個象限中的任務數目上限限為 10 個
    你應將任務數限制在每象限不超過 10 項任務。這樣做可避免艾森豪矩陣變得雜亂、令人難以招架。可以製作多個矩陣,但應為任務清單設限,僅納入必要的行動項目。

  2. 先淘汰,然後安排優先順序
    事實上,我們工作時間中有 60% 是花費在工作的連帶行政事務,例如匯報狀態、等待核准、跟進資訊。先淘汰不必要的任務,才能有效地安排優先順序。你能在進入第一、第二、第三象限前,先把第四象限處理完畢。若能快速淘汰一些項目,請直接這麼做.如此一來,就能加快安排優先順序的流程。

“I have two kinds of problems: the urgent and the important. The urgent are not important, and the important are never urgent," said Dwight David Eisenhower. As the day goes by, the to-do list grows longer and we get busy dealing with urgent matters, making it increasingly difficult to maintain work efficiency. Effectively prioritizing work tasks makes the difference between falling behind and getting ahead. At this point, it’s time to make use of the “Eisenhower Matrix” management method. It is a way of organizing tasks based on their urgency and importance, making it easier for people to manage tasks and plan their time efficiently.

How to Differentiate Between Urgent and Important Tasks

Urgency and importance may appear similar, but there are critical distinctions between the two. Urgent tasks demand immediate attention and have noticeable consequences if not completed within the designated time frame. You cannot avoid these tasks, and delaying them can result in increased pressure. Important tasks may not necessitate immediate attention, but they contribute to the achievement of long-term goals. Just because these tasks are less urgent does not mean they are unimportant. To effectively utilize resources, you need to meticulously plan for these tasks.

Quadrant 1: Do

Tasks that are both urgent and important. If there are tasks on your to-do list that require immediate completion, have evident consequences, and impact long-term goals, place them in this quadrant. Examples include taking over a sick colleague's project or handling unexpected emergencies.

Quadrant 2: Decide

Important but non-urgent tasks. These tasks pertain to significant long-term goals or work items with no specific deadline, allowing them to be scheduled for later completion. Once you resolve tasks in Quadrant 1, you can immediately address these tasks. Examples include obtaining professional qualifications, planning budget cuts, and other long-term business objectives.

Quadrant 3: Delegate

Urgent but unimportant tasks. These tasks need immediate completion but will not affect long-term goals. They may not be crucial enough to warrant your personal attention and can be delegated to other team members. Examples include routine tasks or lengthy meetings and phone calls with unclear objectives.

Quadrant 4: Delete

Neither urgent nor important tasks. These tasks can divert your focus and should be minimized whenever possible. In many instances, such tasks can be disregarded or canceled. Examples include social events and non-essential, extended afternoon tea breaks.

Maximizing the Eisenhower Matrix with these tips:

  1. Limit the number of tasks in each quadrant to 10
    Restrict the number of tasks to no more than 10 per quadrant to prevent the Eisenhower Matrix from becoming cluttered and unmanageable. You can create multiple matrices, but set limits for the task list, incorporating only necessary action items.

  2. Eliminate first, then prioritize
    In reality, 60% of our work hours are spent on ancillary administrative tasks, such as reporting statuses, awaiting approvals, and following up on information. Prioritizing effectively starts with eliminating unnecessary tasks. Complete Quadrant 4 before moving on to Quadrants 1, 2, and 3. If you can swiftly eliminate certain items, do so immediately to accelerate the prioritization process.

原文

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